PEDIMOS QUE LA UNIÓN EUROPEA CONTRIBUYA ACTIVAMENTE A PONER FIN AL “APARTHEID LINGÜÍSTICO” CONTRA EL GUARANÍ EN PARAGUÁI

GN  “Ñe’ê Ñemboyke” Paraguáipe: Joaju Guasu Európa ha Suiza

 

ES  “Apartheid Lingüístico” paraguayo: Unión Europea y Suiza

 

EN  Paraguayan “Linguistic Apartheid”: European Union and Switzerland

 

FR  “Apartheid Linguistique” paraguayen: Union Européenne et Suisse

 

DE  Die paraguayische „sprachliche Apartheid“: Europäische Union und die Schweiz

 

PT  "Apartheid Lingüístico" paraguaio: União Européia e Suiça.

 

 


GN     Roipota Európa Joaju Guasu oguerosapukái yvytúre Paraguáipe oîha ñe’ê ñemboyke.

 

ES     La condena pública por parte de la Unión Europea del “apartheid lingüístico” paraguayo.

 

EN     A public condemnation of the “linguistic apartheid” in Paraguay on behalf of the European Union.

 

FR     La condamnation publique de la part de l’Union européenne de “apartheid linguistique” paraguayen.

 

DE     Die öffentliche Verurteilung der “sprachlichen Apartheid” in Paraguay durch die Europäische Gemeinschaft.

 

PT     A condenação pública por parte da União Européia do "apartheid lingüístico" paraguaio.

 

___________________________________________________

 

GN    Roipota Európa Joaju Guasu oguerosapukái yvytúre Paraguáipe oîha ñe’ê ñemboyke.

 

Karai Ján Figel’–pe

Tekombo’e, Ñembokatupyry, Arandupy ha Ñe’êeta Ñangarekoha, Európa Aty

CAB–FIGEL@ec.europa.eu

 

Mayma Európa Amandaje Guasúpe

 

Karai Moritz Leuenberger–pe

Confederación Helvética Sâmbyhyhápe

webmaster@admin.ch, moritz.leuenberger@admin.ch

 

Rojerure Európa Joaju Guasúpe ipytyvô mbarete, tenonderâite ipytyvô katupyry ha viru, avei ojesareko haguâ okáguio ojehapo’o haguâ guarani ñe’ê ñemboyke kañymby oîva Paraguáipe (1811–2006)

 

Ore, Paraguái retâygua, rojerure Európa Joaju Guasúpe, hetânguérape,  umi tetâ oikétavape, mayma Európa  retâyguápe ha avei Suiza retâyguápe, (kóva hekoasapukúmagui ñe’êeta moañetépe) toipytyvô   ojehapo’o haguâ guaraní ñe’ê ñemboyke kañymby vaiete oñemboguatáva  Paraguáipe 1811 guive âga peve. Ko mba’e vaiete omboyke hetaiterei tapichápe ko’â mokôi sa ro’y pukukue; ndaijáivo chupekuéra tekombo’e, ñembokatupyry ha marandu guaraníme, ha péichape oñemboyke oike haguâ añete ha kyre’ÿme tekoaty sâmbyhýpe, arandupýpe, ñemu reko ha pokatúpe.

 

Mbykyhapete, guarani reko kóicha:

 

Paraguái ñe’ê’ypy, tenondegua ha ojepyruvéva.

 

Tapicha ha ogakuéra jepapa guasu oikova’ekue Paraguáipe 2002rô he’i: ¡59 %! umi ogakuérape oñeñe’ê guaraníme.

 

Oje’e oîha amo 6 ha 12 millones tapicha rupi oñe’êva guaraníme Paraguái, Bolivia, Argentina ha Brasil–pe.

 

1992–me  ojekuaauka ypýkuri Paraguái sâso rekoasápe (1811), guarani ha’eha avei iñe’ê teete castellano yére tetâ tuichakue jave; katu âga peve(2006) ne’îrâ gueteri ojejapo mba’eve guasu oñemboaje haguâ upe kuaaukapy. Umi tekotevêvéva ha oñeñanduvevahína: tetâ sâmbyhy –opa mba’e’apópe– ndoipurúi guarani ñe’ê; apoukapykuéra ndojekuaaukái guaraníme ha araka’eve ndojejapóiva; mba’erepy ñemu oiko ijapoukapy oipuru’ÿre guarani ñe’ê; ndaipóri mba’eveichagua tekorâ he’íva mboýpa umi momaranduhakuéra oipuruva’erâ guarani imba’e’apokuérape: Paraguái kuaaukahápe ndojepurúi guarani; mamo tetânguéra atyhápe oikéva guivépe Paraguái, taha’e MERCOSUR térâ ambuéva guarani ndaipóri upépe iñe’ê teetéramo térâ imba’apo ñe’êramo.

 

Ndaipóri tekombo’e guaraníme. 1994pe oñepyrûkuri oñembo’e 118 mbo’ehaópe oîpype upérô 6000 mbo’ehao Paraguáipe. 1997rôkatu ojehuputy 400 mbo’ehao oipurúva guarani ñe’ê peteîháramo. 2006–me 10 mbo’ehao rupintema omboguatave ko tembiapo, mburuvichakuéra noipytyvôigui kyre’ÿ ha katupyrýpe. Ko tembiapo omoî vaieterei hetaiterei tapichápe ha avave gueteri ndoguerosapukáiri okápe, jepémo ko’â 200 áñope araka’eve  noñehekombo’éi guaraníme, jepe guarani pe hetave tapicha oipurúva.

 

¿Mba’érepa roguahê pene rendápe, Európa Joaju Guasu ha Suiza–pe? Ko’â mba’ére:

 

– Európa Joaju Guasu (ha Suiza) ojekuaauka ha ojekuaaukaségui arapýpe imba’apokatuha ñe’êetápe.

 

– Európa Joaju Guasúpe oîgui heta tetâ omba’apóva mokôi térâ hetave ñe’ême: Finlandia, Bélgica, Malta, Irlanda, Luxemburgo; avei España, Italia ha Reino Unido, jepémo ko’â mbohapy ndaha’éi ku tuichakue jave tetâ ojapóva, ha oîve.

 

– Pe ñe’ê pojavereko ñangareko –derécho ñangareko– noguahêigui  Paraguáipe ha heta ambue Amérika retânguérape, noguahêinga’u aipo oñeikûmby ha ojejapoháicha Európa Joaju Guasu  ha Suiza–pe. Oguahê Québec–pe añoite (ha Canáda tuichakuépe) ha upéva oñeñangareko haguâ ambue Európa ñe’ê rehe jeýnte avei: francés. Európa retânguérape noñemoneîrichéne mokôi mba’e: 1) oñeisâmbyhy pe tetâ ñe’ê ohekojopy’akue ichupe ha sa’ive tapicha oipurúvape, ha 2) umi mba’e tekotevêvévapentejepe ndohejái ojepuru porâ iñe’ê’ypy: sâmbyhy ha tekojojápe.

 

– Amérika pe oñeñe’êrô ñe’êeta rehe oñeñe’êgui katuetenunga Európa ñe’ê  año rehe jeýnte: (inglés, francés, castellano, portugués, neerlandés). Ko’âva omomirî térâ ojuka térâ omboyke Amérika ñe’ênguérape. Upéva ojekuaa porâiterei, ko’âga peve (2006) ndaipóri peteîva Amérika ñe’ê’ypy heko resâi porâva tetâ rembiapópe. Ndaipóri ambue hendápe peichagua mba’e. Jahekáramo tekojoja ko arapýpe ha nañambotatapejusevéirô yvypóra jeikovai oñondive, jahupiva’erâ avei (ambue tembiapo ykére) Amérika ñe’êguéra tetâ rembiapokatúpe, oîpype hetaiterei tapicha oipurúva gueteri ko’â ñe’ê ha ikatueténteva omba’apo porâ hekohápe ha ikatu avei omyasâi ha oñangareko ambuéva rehe.

 

– Avei oimégui Európa ñe’ê teetekuéra (ha avei umi ndaha’éiva vasco, galés, catalán/valenciano, ha ambueve) noñandúi ohekojopyha chupe ambue ñe’ê ha ndohecháigui ikatuha ogue. Katu Amérikape oñemotenondéramo irundy (po) Európa ñe’ê: inglés, castellano, portugués y francés (ha neerlandés) ha ndojejokóiramo Amérika ñe’êguéra ha iñarandupy jejuka (ojejapoháicha Paraguáipe ñe’ê ñemboyke vai ha ñañáme) ore roho py’ÿivévo ko’âga rojapoháichagui Európa Joaju Guasu ha Suiza retâme oreaty tuichaicháne upérupi roñe’êva inglés, castellano (térâ portugués) ha oremandu’a rendýme naorepytyvôihaguére ore ñe’ê ojejuka jave. Avei umi Afrikaygua ombohetavéne umi ñe’ê jepuru ohechávo avei mba’éichapa francés, inglés,  portugués térâ árabe ñe’ê ojuka rasy iñe’ê’ypykuéra. 800 mil tapicha oñe’êva castellano térâ portugués oimehaguigua Dinamarca–pe (5,5 millones tapicha hetâyguáva) térâ  Finlandia–pe (5,3 millones tapicha hetâyguáva) térâ Suecia–pe (9 millones tapicha hetâyguáva) pya’e ha’éta peteî “aty’i iñe’êjejoguáva” oñeñangarekova’erâ rehe ha omoambuéta umi tetâ ñe’êguéra reko. Orerehe ndaikatúi ojávo péva. Ojejuka mba’eveté’ÿre, maymavéva rovake, ore ñe’ê. Ojejukahína guarani ñe’ê maymavéva rovake mba’evete’ÿre ha oñemboyke ipuruhára pojavereko (derecho) ha ko’âva umi hetavéva Paraguáipe. Ndoku’éiramo mba’eve, roipytyvône, ndorojaposéiramo jepe, ojejuka haguâ ambue ñe’ê. Rombyasy. Ore orepy’apotî.

 

Mba’épa rojerure

 

Roipota Európa Joaju Guasu oguerosapukái yvytúre Paraguáipe oîha ñe’ê ñemboyke.

 

Roipota Európa Joaju Guasu pytyvô mbarete, pokatu, viru ha katupyrýpe ojehapo’o haguâ Paraguáigui guarani ñe’ê ñemboyke vaiete.

 

Rojerure ko’âga. Ha ndoroipotái ñe’ê nandirei.

 

Európa, ¿ndépiko rehendu ne ñe’ê añónte?

 

Romboguapy ore réra,

 

Mbo’ehára Ñemongu’e Jekupytyrâ

jekupytyra@gmail.com

 

Okaraygua Ñemongu’e Paraguáipe – OÑP

info@okaraygua–paraguai.org

mcp@highway.com.py

www.okaraygua–paraguai.org

 

Coordinadora de Productores Agrícolas de San Pedro Norte

 

Partido Convergencia Popular Socialista

pcps@highway.com.py

 

Fundación Yvy Marâe’ÿ

yvymaraey.fundacion@gmail.com

 

Ateneo de Lengua y Cultura Guaraní

ateneo@telesurf.com.py

www.ateneoguarani.edu.py

 

Organización Nacional de Aborígenes Independientes

 

Ñe’êeta rekávo Aty – Organización por el Multilingüismo

guarani@om–plural.org

 

Aty Kuruvíka

curuvica@gmail.com

 

Karaku · Tesarekoha Avañe’ê Európape

karaku.tae@gmail.com

 

Paraguay–Asunción, 19 jasypateî 2006–me

 


________________________________________________

 

ES     La condena pública por parte de la Unión Europea del “apartheid lingüístico” paraguayo.

 

A Sr. Ján Figel’

Comisario de Educación, Formación, Cultura y Multilingüismo, Comisión Europea

CAB–FIGEL@ec.europa.eu

 

A todos los miembros del Parlamento Europeo

 

A Sr. Moritz Leuenberger

A la Presidencia de la Confederación Helvética

webmaster@admin.ch, moritz.leuenberger@admin.ch

 

Pedimos que la Unión Europea contribuya activamente, sobre todo mediante cooperación técnica y económica, aunque también con inspecciones internacionales, a poner fin al sistema implícito de “apartheid lingüístico” (1811–2006) en  Paraguay contra el guaraní.

 

Como ciudadanos de Paraguay, pedimos de forma pública a la Unión Europea, a los Estados miembros, a los Estados candidatos y a todas las comunidades lingüísticas y ciudadanos de la Unión Europea y Suiza (por su larga tradición de país constitucionalmente y efectivamente multilingüe), que contribuyan a poner fin al inmoral régimen implícito de “apartheid lingüístico” vigente en Paraguay desde 1811 hasta hoy y que ha segregado a millones de paraguayos de lengua guaraní durante dos siglos, impidiéndoles el acceso a la educación, a la formación y a la información en guaraní y con ellos impidiendo su real y activa participación social, cultural, económica y política.

 

¿Cuál es, de forma breve, la situación del guaraní?

 

Es la lengua primera, autóctona y mayoritaria de Paraguay.

 

De acuerdo con el Censo Nacional de Población y Viviendas de Paraguay del año 2002, el 59 por ciento de todos los hogares paraguayos es de lengua guaraní.

 

Se calcula que entre 6 y 12 millones de personas hablan guaraní en Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina y Brasil.

 

El 1992 se declaró, por primera vez en toda la historia del Paraguay independiente (1811), la cooficialidad en todo el país del guaraní, aunque esta declaración no ha tenido ningún efecto real hasta hoy (2006). Las carencias más terribles y visibles de la no aplicación de la cooficialidad son: la Administración estatal —todas sus ramas— no funciona en guaraní, las leyes no se publican ni se han publicado nunca en guaraní, los productos comerciales no se comercializan con instrucciones en guaraní, no existen regulaciones sobre cuotas de uso del guaraní por parte de los medios de comunicación públicos y privados, la imagen y la simbología nacional de Paraguay no incorporan el guaraní, el guaraní no es lengua oficial ni de trabajo de las distintas instituciones y organismos del Mercosur ni de otros organismos de los que forma parte Paraguay, etc.

 

No hay educación en guaraní. En 1994 se introdujo de forma experimental la enseñanza en guaraní en 118 escuelas sobre casi 6.000 escuelas que tenía Paraguay en ese año. En 1997 había 400 escuelas con la modalidad de enseñanza en guaraní. En 2006 sólo 10 escuelas continúan con la enseñanza en guaraní, después de que el Gobierno Paraguayo dejase de apoyar activa y claramente esta modalidad. Esta política estatal, que perjudica a la mayoría de la población, no ha provocado ninguna denuncia internacional, a pesar de que nunca en doscientos años se ha educado a los paraguayos en guaraní, la lengua mayoritaria del país.

 

¿Por qué nos dirigimos a la Unión Europea y a Suiza?

 

– Porque la Unión Europea (y Suiza) es, y quiere serlo, un referente universal en la gestión del multilingüismo.

 

– Porque en la Unión Europea hay Estados que funcionan con dos o más lenguas: Finlandia, Bélgica, Malta, Irlanda, Luxemburgo, España de forma parcial, Italia de forma parcial, el Reino Unido de forma parcial, etc.

 

– Porque la protección de los derechos lingüísticos, tal como se entienden y se practican en la Unión Europea y Suiza, no ha llegado a Paraguay ni a muchos países de América. Únicamente ha llegado a Quebec (y a Canadá en su conjunto), y básicamente sólo para proteger muy activamente una lengua europea: el francés. En ningún país de la Unión Europea se consentiría que se gobernase en la lengua “colonial” y de la minoría y que en ámbitos tan básicos como la Administración pública y la justicia la lengua autóctona de la mayoría de la población no pudiera usarse con normalidad y plenitud.

 

– Porque en América, cuando se habla de multilingüismo, normalmente sólo se habla de las lenguas europeas (inglés, francés, castellano, portugués, neerlandés), que han minorizado, asesinado o marginalizado a las lenguas americanas y las relaciones entre sí. Es elocuente que ninguna lengua americana, en 2006, sea una lengua normal de Estado en América. Ningún otro continente del mundo se halla en esta situación. La justicia en el mundo, si no se quiere crear más resentimiento entre las distintas comunidades humanas, también pasa por estatalizar en América las lenguas americanas que todavía hoy cuentan con millones de hablantes o son muy viables en su contexto y en la protección y promoción de las demás lenguas.

 

– Porque tal vez hoy las lenguas oficiales de la Unión Europea y Suiza (pero también las que no son oficiales) no se sientan amenazadas por otras lenguas ni se sientan en peligro de extinción. Pero si en las Américas se imponen cuatro (o cinco) lenguas, todas europeas: inglés, castellano, portugués y francés (y neerlandés), y el proceso de genocidio lingüístico y cultural de América (con prácticas tan abominables, inhumanas e injustas como el "apartheid  lingüístico" paraguayo) no se detienen, cuando "nosotros" emigremos, a un ritmo mucho mayor que el presente, a la Unión Europea y Suiza –con la memoria viva de la nula ayuda recibida cuando nuestras lenguas eran genocidadas–, constituiremos enormes bolsas de hablantes de inglés o castellano (o portugués) en muchos países. Y los africanos que verán morir sus lenguas bajo el francés, el inglés, el portugués o el árabe, aumentarán las bolsas de hablantes de estas lenguas. Ochocientos mil hablantes de castellano o de portugués, de cualquier origen, en Dinamarca (5,5 millones de habitantes) o en Finlandia (5,3 millones) o en Suecia (9 millones) o en Irlanda (4 millones) serán una "minoría alófona" a proteger y contribuirán a cambiar la historia y el perfil lingüístico de estos países. No será culpa nuestra. Se asesinan, ante la indiferencia de todos, nuestras lenguas. Se asesina, ante la  indiferencia de todos, el guaraní y se conculcan los derechos humanos y lingüísticos más básicos de sus hablantes, la mayoría de paraguayos. Si nada cambia, contribuiremos, a pesar nuestro, a asesinar otras lenguas. Lo sentimos. Somos inocentes.

 

¿Qué pedimos?

 

La condena pública por parte de la Unión Europea del “apartheid lingüístico” paraguayo.

 

La cooperación efectiva política, económica y técnica de la Unión Europea para acabar con el “apartheid lingüístico” paraguayo contra el guaraní

 

Lo pedimos ahora. Y no queremos sólo palabras.

 

Europa, ¿sólo escuchas tus voces (tus lenguas)?

 

Firman,

 

Movimiento de Educadores Jekupytyrâ

jekupytyra@gmail.com

 

Movimiento Campesino Paraguayo

info@okaraygua–paraguai.org

mcp@highway.com.py

www.okaraygua–paraguai.org

 

Coordinadora de Productores Agrícolas de San Pedro Norte

 

Partido Convergencia Popular Socialista

pcps@highway.com.py

 

Fundación Yvy Marâe’ÿ

yvymaraey.fundacion@gmail.com

 

Ateneo de Lengua y Cultura Guaraní

ateneo@telesurf.com.py

www.ateneoguarani.edu.py

 

Organización Nacional de Aborígenes Independientes

 

Coordinadora Nacional de Organizaciones de Mujeres Trabajadoras Rurales e Indígenas – CONAMURI

conamuri@rieder.net.py

 

Ñe’êeta rekávo Aty – Organización por el Multilingüismo

guarani@om–plural.org

 

Grupo Kuruvíka

curuvica@gmail.com

 

Karaku · Observatorio Guaraní Europeo

karaku.tae@gmail.com

 

Paraguay–Asunción, 19 de noviembre de 2006

 


___________________________________________________

 

EN     A public condemnation of the “linguistic apartheid” in Paraguay on behalf of the European Union.

 

To Mr. Ján Figel’

Member of the European Commission for Education, Training, Culture and Multilingualism

CAB–FIGEL@ec.europa.eu

 

To all Members of the European Parliament

 

To Mr. Moritz Leuenberger

To the Presidency of the Helvetic Confederation

webmaster@admin.ch, moritz.leuenberger@admin.ch 

 

We request the European Union to actively contribute, mainly through technical and economic cooperation, but also if necessary with international inspections and sanctions, to putting an end to the implicit system of “linguistic apartheid” (1811–2006) that has been perpetrated against the Guarani language in Paraguay.

 

As citizens of Paraguay, we publicly request the European Union, both state members and candidates, all linguistic communities and citizens of the European Union and Switzerland (given their longstanding tradition as a constitutionally and effective multilingual country), to help put an end to the immoral regime of implicit “linguistic apartheid” that has existed in Paraguay since 1811 and that has segregated the Guarani–speaking population of this country for two centuries, denying us access to education, training and information in Guarani, and therefore preventing us from having a real and active role in the social, cultural, economic and political spheres of Paraguay.

 

What is, shortly, the current situation of Guarani?

 

It is the first language of Paraguay, as well as the indigenous and most spoken language of the country.

 

According to the National Population and Household Census 2002 of Paraguay, Guarani is the language spoken by 59% of all Paraguayan households.

 

Approximately 6 to 12 million people speak Guarani in Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina and Brazil.

 

In 1992, for the first time ever since the independence of Paraguay (1811), Guarani was proclaimed the co–official language of the country. However, this declaration has had no real effect to date (2006). The most terrible and visible deficiencies in not applying this co–officiality are that the state administration — in all areas — does not work in Guarani, laws are not published and never have been published in Guarani, commercial products are not sold with instructions in Guarani, there are no laws dictating the use of Guarani in public and private media, the image and national symbology of Paraguay does not use Guarani, it is not an official working language of the different institutions and bodies of Mercosur or of any other organisations that Paraguay is member of, etc.

 

Education is not available in Guarani. In 1994, teaching in Guarani was introduced, in an experimental phase, in 118 schools out of the almost 6,000 schools that existed in Paraguay at the time. In 1997, 400 schools offered education in Guarani. In 2006, only 10 schools continue to teach their pupils in Guarani, after the Paraguayan government decided to no longer actively and publicly support this option. This state policy, which hinders the majority of the population, has not brought about any international denunciations, even though Paraguayans never have received, in two hundred years, an education in Guarani, the most spoken language of the country.

 

Why do we address the European Union and Switzerland?

 

– Because the European Union (and Switzerland) is and aspires to be a universal reference of multilingual management.

 

– Because there are states in the European Union that work in two or more languages: Finland, Belgium, Malta, Ireland, Luxembourg and, partially, Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, etc.

 

– Because the protection of linguistic rights, as understood and upheld in the European Union and in Switzerland, has not yet reached Paraguay or many other American countries. It has only been applied in Quebec (and in all of Canada), basically only to very actively protect a European language, French. No state member of the European Union would permit being governed in a “colonial” language, spoken by the minority of its citizens, where the autochthonous language spoken by the majority could not be used on a normal and full basis in such basic areas as the public administration and legal system.

 

– Because, in America, when multilingualism is mentioned, it is usually to talk about European languages (English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch). Languages that have weakened, murdered or marginalised the indigenous languages of America and the relationships between these communities. The proof of this is that, in 2006, no American language is the normal language of any of the countries in America. No other continent on earth finds itself in this situation. In this world, if one does not want to create any more resentment amongst different communities, then justice also means officialising the indigenous languages of America that still have millions of speakers or that are very feasible within this context and in protecting and promoting all other languages.

 

– Because the official languages of the European Union and Switzerland (but also non official ones such as Basque, Welsh, Catalan/Valencian, etc.) may not feel threatened by other languages or think that they are in danger of extinction. However, if four or five languages are imposed in America, all of them European: English, Spanish, Portuguese, French (and Dutch), and the process of linguistic and cultural genocide (with such abominable, inhumane and unjust acts as the "linguistic apartheid" in Paraguay) is not stopped, the day will come when "we" will emigrate to the European Union and Switzerland. This will happen at a much quicker pace than now, and we will vividly recall the total lack of help in stopping this linguistic genocide, and it will then be our turn to build enormous pockets of English or Spanish (or Portuguese) speakers in several countries. The African citizens who witness how their languages die as these succumb to the pressure of French, English, Portuguese or Arabic will only contribute to making these pockets of speakers even larger. Eight hundred thousand speakers of Spanish or Portuguese, from different countries, in Denmark (5.5 million inhabitants), Finland (5.3 million), Sweden (9 million), or in Ireland (4 million) will become a minority community with a non official language that will need to be protected and that will contribute to changing the history and the linguistic profile of these nations. And this will not be our fault. Our languages are being murdered, to the indifference of all. Guarani is being murdered to the indifference of all, and the most basic human and linguistic rights of its speakers, who make up the majority of Paraguay, are being infringed upon. If nothing is done to change this, we soon too will contribute, much to our regret, to the murdering of other languages. We are sorry, but we are innocent.

 

What is it that we request?

 

A public condemnation of the “linguistic apartheid” in Paraguay on behalf of the European Union.

 

Political, economic and technical cooperation of the European Union to end the “linguistic apartheid” of Guarani in Paraguay.

 

And we demand actions now, not only words.

 

Europe, do you only listen to your voices (your languages)?

 

Signed,

 

Jekupytyrâ Teachers Movement [for Solidarity]

jekupytyra@gmail.com

 

Paraguayan Farmers Movement – MCP

info@okaraygua–paraguai.org

mcp@highway.com.py

www.okaraygua–paraguai.org

 

Farm Producers Coordinator of San Pedro Norte – CPA SPN

 

"Convergencia Popular" Socialist Party

pcps@highway.com.py

 

Yvy Marâe’ÿ Foundation

yvymaraey.fundacion@gmail.com

 

Guaraní Language and Culture Athenaeum

ateneo@telesurf.com.py

www.ateneoguarani.edu.py

 

National Organisation of Independent Aborigenes – ONAI

 

National Coordinator for the Organisation of Rural and Indigenous Working Women – CONAMURI

conamuri@rieder.net.py

 

Organisation for Multilingualism

guarani@om–plural.org

 

Kuruvíka Group

curuvica@gmail.com

 

Karaku – European  Observatory of the Guaraní Language

karaku.tae@gmail.com

 

Paraguay–Asunción, 19 November 2006

 


___________________________________________________

 

FR     La condamnation publique de la part de l’Union européenne de “apartheid linguistique” paraguayen.

 

A l’attention de M. Ján Figel’

Commissaire pour l’Éducation, la Formation, la Culture et le Multilinguisme, Commission européenne

CAB–FIGEL@ec.europa.eu

 

A tous les membres du Parlement européen

 

A l’attention de M. Moritz Leuenberger

A la Présidence de la Confédération helvétique

webmaster@admin.ch, moritz.leuenberger@admin.ch

 

Nous demandons que l’Union européenne contribue de façon active, surtout par le biais d’une coopération technique et économique mais également à travers la réalisation d’inspections internationales, à mettre fin au processus implicite “d’apartheid linguistique” (1811–2006) qui est pratiqué à l’encontre du guarani au Paraguay. 

 

En tant que citoyens du Paraguay, nous faisons appel publiquement à l’Union européenne, aux États membres, aux États candidats et à toutes les communautés linguistiques et aux citoyens de l’Union européenne et de la Suisse (en raison de sa longue tradition de pays constitutionnellement et effectivement multilingue), pour qu’ils contribuent à mettre fin à l’immoral régime implicite “d’apartheid linguistique” qui est en vigueur au Paraguay depuis 1811 et qui a discriminé des millions de Paraguayens de langue guarani pendant deux siècles en leur empêchant d’accéder à l’éducation, à la formation et à l’information en guarani et, par conséquent, d’avoir une participation réelle et active dans la vie sociale, culturelle, économique et politique. 

 

Quelle est, brièvement, la situation du guarani ?

 

C’est la langue originelle, autochtone et majoritaire du Paraguay.

 

Selon le Recensement national de la population et des logements du Paraguay pour 2002, 59 pour cent des ménages paraguayens sont de langue guarani. 

 

On estime entre 6 et 12 millions le nombre de personnes qui parlent le guarani au Paraguay, en Bolivie, en Argentine et au Brésil.

 

La coofficialité du guarani dans tout le pays a été déclarée en 1992, pour la première fois dans toute l’histoire du Paraguay indépendant (1811), même si cette déclaration n’a pas eu le moindre effet à ce jour (2006). Les carences les plus terribles et les plus visibles de l’inapplication de la coofficialité sont les suivantes: l’administration de l’État – dans toutes ses ramifications – ne fonctionne pas en guarani ; les lois ne sont pas et n’ont jamais été publiées en guarani; les produits commerciaux ne sont pas commercialisés avec des instructions en guarani; il n’existe aucune régulation des quotas d’utilisation du guarani par les moyens de communication publics et privés ; l’image et la symbologie nationale du Paraguay n’intègrent pas le guarani ; le guarani n’est ni langue officielle ni de travail des différentes institutions et organisations du Mercosur et d’autres organisations dont fait partie le Paraguay, etc.

 

Il n’y a pas d’éducation en guarani. L’éducation en guarani fut introduite en 1994, à titre expérimental, dans 118 écoles sur près de 6 000 écoles recensées cette année–là au Paraguay. En 1997, 400 écoles offraient la modalité d’enseignement en guarani. En 2006, seules 10 écoles continuent à enseigner en guarani après que le gouvernement paraguayen a cessé de soutenir de façon active et résolue cette modalité. Cette politique de l’État, qui nuit à la majorité de la population, n’a provoqué aucune dénonciation internationale, malgré le fait que les Paraguayens n’ont jamais reçu d’éducation en guarani, la langue majoritaire du pays, durant ces deux cents ans.

 

Pourquoi faisons–nous appel à l’Union européenne et à la Suisse ?

 

– Parce que l’Union européenne (et la Suisse) est, et cherche à être, une référence universelle dans la gestion du multilinguisme.

 

– Parce qu’il existe au sein de l’Union européenne des États qui fonctionnent avec deux ou davantage de langues : la Finlande, la Belgique, Malte, l’Irlande, le Luxembourg, l’Espagne (en partie), l’Italie (en partie), le Royaume–Uni (en partie), etc.

 

– Parce que la protection des droits linguistiques, telle qu’elle est conçue et pratiquée dans l’Union européenne et en Suisse, n’a atteint ni le Paraguay ni la plupart des pays d’Amérique. Elle n’est appliquée qu’au Québec (et à l’ensemble du Canada) et exclusivement pour protéger de façon très active une langue européenne: le français. Aucun pays de l’Union européenne n’accepterait d’être gouverné dans la langue “coloniale” et de la minorité, et ne consentirait que la langue autochtone de la majorité de la population ne puisse pas être utilisée de façon normale et intégrale dans des domaines aussi fondamentaux que l’administration publique et la justice.

 

– Parce qu’en Amérique, quand il est question de multilinguisme, on ne mentionne en général que les langues européennes (anglais, français, espagnol, portugais, néerlandais), qui ont opprimé, assassiné ou marginalisé les langues américaines et les relations entre celles–ci. Il est éloquent qu’aucune langue américaine ne soit, en 2006, une langue normale d’État en Amérique. Aucun autre continent du monde ne se trouve dans cette situation. La justice dans le monde, si l’on ne veut pas accentuer les ressentiments existant entre les différentes communautés humaines, passe également par l’étatisation en Amérique des langues américaines qui comptent encore aujourd’hui des millions de locuteurs ou qui sont très viables dans leur contexte et par la protection et la promotion des autres langues.

 

– Parce qu’il est probable, aujourd’hui, que les langues officielles de l’Union européenne et de la Suisse (mais également les langues qui ne sont pas officielles) ne se sentent ni menacées par d’autres langues ni en danger d’extinction. Mais si l’on impose en Amérique quatre (ou cinq) langues, qui sont toutes européennes – anglais, espagnol, portugais et français (et néerlandais) – et si l’on n’arrête pas le processus de génocide linguistique et culturel qui sévit en Amérique (à travers des pratiques aussi abominables, inhumaines et injustes que « l’apartheid linguistique » paraguayen), le jour où “nous” émigrerons, à un rythme beaucoup plus soutenu que le rythme actuel, vers l’Union européenne et la Suisse – en gardant en mémoire l’absence totale d’aide reçue lorsque nos langues étaient soumises au génocide –, nous constituerons d’énormes concentrations de locuteurs anglais ou espagnols (ou portugais) dans de nombreux pays. Et les Africains qui verront mourir leurs langues sous le français, l’anglais, le portugais ou l’arabe, accroîtront les concentrations d’habitants de ces langues. Huit cent mille personnes, aux origines les plus diverses, parlant l’espagnol ou le portugais au Danemark (5,5 millions d’habitants) ou en Finlande (5,3 millions) ou en Suède (9 millions) ou en Irlande (4 millions) constitueront une “minorité allophone” à protéger et contribueront à changer l’histoire et le profil linguistique de ces pays. Ce ne sera pas notre faute. Nos langues sont assassinées dans l’indifférence générale. Le guarani est assassiné dans l’indifférence générale et on foule aux pieds les droits de l’homme et les droits linguistiques les plus élémentaires de ses locuteurs, la majorité des Paraguayens. Si rien ne change, nous contribuerons, contre notre gré, à l’assassinat d’autres langues. Nous le regrettons mais nous sommes innocents.

 

Que demandons–nous ?

 

La condamnation publique de la part de l’Union européenne de “l’apartheid linguistique” paraguayen.

 

La coopération effective sur le plan politique, économique et technique de l’Union européenne pour mettre fin à  “l’apartheid linguistique” paraguayen contre le guarani.

 

Nous le demandons maintenant. Et nous ne nous contenterons pas de bonnes paroles.

 

L’Europe, seulement écoutez–vous vos voix (vos langues)?

 

Signé,

 

Mouvement des éducateurs Jekupytyrâ [pour la Solidarité]

jekupytyra@gmail.com

 

Mouvement paysan paraguayen – MCP

mcp@highway.com.py

www.okaraygua–paraguai.org

 

Athénée de la langue et de la culture guarani

ateneo@telesurf.com.py

www.ateneoguarani.edu.py

 

Coordinatrice des producteurs agricoles de San Pedro Norte – CPA SPN

 

Parti convergence populaire socialiste

pcps@highway.com.py

 

Coordinatrice nationale des organisations de femmes travailleuses rurales et indigènes – CONAMURI

conamuri@rieder.net.py

 

Fondation Yvy Marâe’ÿ

yvymaraey.fundacion@gmail.com

 

Organisation nationale des aborigènes indépendants – ONAI

 

Organisation pour le Multilinguisme

guarani@om–plural.org

 

Kuruvíka Groupe

curuvica@gmail.com

 

Karaku · Observatoire Guarani Européen

karaku.tae@gmail.com 

 

Paraguay–Asunción, le 19 novembre 2006

 


___________________________________________________

 

DE     Die öffentliche Verurteilung der “sprachlichen Apartheid” in Paraguay durch die Europäische Gemeinschaft.

 

Herrn Jan Figel’

Kommissar der europäischen Gemeinschaft für Erziehung, Bildung, Kultur und Mehrsprachigkeit Europäische Kommission

CAB–FIGEL@ec.europa.eu

 

An alle Mitglieder des Europäischen Parlaments

 

Herrn Moritz Leuenberger

An den Präsidenten der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft

webmaster@admin.ch, moritz.leuenberger@admin.ch

 

Wir bitten hiermit die Europäische Gemeinschaft einen aktiven Beitrag zur Beendigung der gegen das Guarani gerichteten “sprachlichen Apartheid” in Paraguay zu leisten, insbesondere durch technische und wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit, aber auch durch internationale Kontrollen.

 

Als paraguayische Staatsbürger fordern wir die Europäische Gemeinschaft, ihre Mitgliedsstaaten, die Beitrittsländer und alle Sprachgemeinschaften, sowie die Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft (mit ihrer langen Tradition als mehrsprachiges Land, in dem die verfassungsmäßigen Vorgaben effektiv umgesetzt werden) öffentlich auf, zur Beendigung des unwürdigen Zustands der „sprachlichen Apartheid“ beizutragen, der in Paraguay seit 1811 bis heute Millionen von Bürgen mit Guarani als Muttersprache sozial benachteiligt. Guarani–Sprechern wird der Zugang zu Erziehung, Ausbildung und Information in der eigenen Sprache verwehrt oder erschwert, so dass ihnen eine wirksame und aktive Teilnahme am gesellschaftlichen, kulturellen, wirtschaftlichen und politischen Leben nicht möglich ist.

 

Kurzgefasster Bericht über die Sprachsituation in Paraguay

 

Guarani ist die ursprüngliche und bodenständige Sprache Paraguays, die von der Mehrheit der Bevölkerung verwendet wird.

 

Laut der Volkszählung von 2002 sind 59% aller Haushalte in Paraguay guaranisprachig.

 

Schäzungen zufolge gibt es zwischen 6 und 12 Mio. Guarani–Sprecher in Paraguay, Bolivien, Argentinien und Brasilien.

 

1992 wurde erstmalig in der unabhängigen Geschichte des Landes (seit 1811) das Guarani zur koofffiziellen Sprache  für das gesamte Staatsgebiet erklärt, ohne dass diese verfassungsmäßige Erklärung bis heute (2006) eine effektive Umsetzung gefunden hätte. Die auffälligsten und schwerwiegendsten Defizite bei der Umsetzung liegen im Bereich der staatlichen Verwaltung (de facto ist Guarani nicht Amtssprache, Gesetze wurden und werden nicht auf Guarani veröffentlicht), der Wirtschaft (Handelserzeugnisse enthalten keine Deklarationen auf Guarani), der Kommunikationsmedien (keine Regelung über die anteilsmäßige Verwendung des Guarani in öffentlichen und privaten Medien) und Hoheitssymbole (Guarani ist nicht repräsentiert). Des Weiteren ist Guarani nicht offizielle oder  Arbeitssprache der verschiedenen Einrichtungen und Organisationen des Mercosur oder anderer überstaatlicher Organisationen, denen Paraguay angehört.

 

Ein funktionierendes Erziehungswesen auf Guarani gibt es nicht. 1994 wurde versuchsweise in 118 von 6000 paraguayischen Schulen guaranisprachiger Unterricht eingeführt. 1997 gab es 400 Schulen, in denen Unterricht auf Guarani erteilt wurde. Nachdem die paraguayische Regierung die aktive und eindeutige Unterstützung dieser Unterrichtsform aufgegeben hat, gab es 2006 nur noch 10 Schulen mit Guarani als Unterrichtssprache. Diese Politik der Regierung, die die Mehrheit der Bevölkerung diskriminiert, führte bisher nicht zu internationalen Protesten, obwohl nun schon seit 200 Jahren das paraguayische Erziehungswesen das Guarani, die Sprache der Bevölkerungsmehrheit, ignoriert.

 

Weshalb dieser Aufruf an die Europäische Gemeinschaft und die Schweiz?

 

– Die Europäische Gemeinschaft und die Schweiz gelten international als (und wollen dies auch sein) Modelle mehrsprachiger Gesellschaften.

 

– In der EU gibt es mehrere Länder, in denen zwei oder mehr Sprachen offiziellen Status haben: Finnland, Belgien, Malta, Irland, Luxemburg, Spanien (regional), Italien (regional), Großbritannien (regional), etc.

 

– Der Schutz und die Wahrung der sprachlichen Rechte der Bürger ist in der Form, wie er in der EU und der Schweiz praktiziert wird, in Paraguay und vielen anderen Ländern Amerikas nicht gewährleistet. Eine Ausnahme stellt Québec (und Kanada insgesamt) dar, allerdings geht es hier lediglich um den Schutz einer europäischen Sprache, nämlich des Französischen. Kein Land der Europäischen Union würde es zulassen, dass die Regierung sich ausschließlich der “Kolonialsprache” einer Minderheit bedienen und dass in so grundlegenden Bereichen wie öffentlicher Verwaltung und Justiz die Mehrheitssprache der Bevölkerung nicht normal und durchgängig verwendet werden könnte.

 

– Wenn in Amerika von Mehrsprachigkeit die Rede ist, bezieht sich dies normalerweise ausschließlich auf die europäischen Sprachen (Englisch, Französisch, Spanisch, Portugiesisch, Niederländisch), von denen die indigenen amerikanischen Sprachen minorisiert, ausgelöscht oder marginalisiert wurden. Auffällig ist, dass im Jahre 2006 keine einzige amerikanische Sprache in irgendeinem amerikanischen Staat normal und offiziell verwendet wird. In keinem anderen Kontinent ist dies der Fall. Es ist ein Gebot der Gerechtigkeit unter den Völkern und Kulturen der Welt, auch in Amerika die Offizialität und Verwendung der bodenständigen Sprachen zu ermöglichen, die auch heute noch Millionen von Sprechern haben bzw. in ihrem jeweiligen Kontext als Kommunikationsmittel sehr effektiv sind und auch einen Beitrag zum Schutz und der Förderung der übrigen Sprachen leisten.

 

– Für die Sprachen der EU–Länder und der Schweiz (und auch für die meisten nicht offiziellen Sprachen) besteht heute wohl keine Bedrohung durch andere Sprachen und und sie stehen nicht vor dem Aussterben. In Amerika jedoch dominieren vier oder fünf Sprachen (Englisch, Französisch, Spanisch, Portugiesisch, Niederländisch), und der Prozess des sprachlichen und kulturellen Genozids (der so verwerfliche, ungerechte und unmenschliche Phänomene wie die “sprachliche Apartheid” in Paraguay zeitigt) wird keineswegs aufgehalten, wenn “wir” zukünftig in immer größerer Zahl in die EU und die Schweiz auswandern. Mit der bitteren Erinnerung daran, dass niemand etwas gegen das Sprachensterben in unseren Ländern unternommen hat, werden durch unseren Zuzug die Gruppen von Englisch–, Spanisch oder Portugiesischsprechern in beachtlichem Maße anwachsen. Die Afrikaner, deren eigene Sprachen dem Druck des Französischen, Englischen, Portugiesischen und Arabischen nachgeben, werden diese Sprechergruppen weiter zunehmen lassen. 800 000 Sprecher des Spanischen oder Portugiesischen unterschiedlicher Herkunft in Dänemark (5,5 Mio Ew.), Finnland (5,3 Mio Ew.), Schweden (9 Mio Ew.), oder Irland (4 Mio Ew.) werden eine zu schützende anderssprachige Minderheit darstellen und Kultur, Geschichte und sprachliches Profil dieser Länder verändern. Unsere Schuld wird dies nicht sein. Indifferent schaut man zu, wie unsere Sprachen sterben.  Teilnahmslos lässt man das Guarani zugrunde gehen und nimmt hin, dass die grundlegenden Sprach– und Menschenrechte seiner Sprecher – der Mehrheit der paraguayer – mit Füßen getreten werden. Wenn nun nichts geschieht, tragen wir wider Willen dazu bei, dass auch andere Sprachen zugrunde gehen. Wir bedauern dies und tragen doch keine Schuld daran.

 

Was fordern wir?

 

Die öffentliche Verurteilung der “sprachlichen Apartheid” in Paraguay durch die Europäische Gemeinschaft.

 

Eine effektive politische, wirtschaftliche und technische Zusammenarbeit der EU mit dem Ziel, die gegen das Guarani und seine Sprecher gerichtete “sprachliche Apartheid” in Paraguay zu beenden.

 

Wir erheben unsere Forderungen jetzt und hoffen nicht bloß mit Worten abgespeist zu werden.

 

Hört Europa, nur Sie Ihren Stimmen (Ihre Sprachen) zu?

 

Unterzeichner,

 

Bund der Erzieherinnen und Erzieher Jekupytyrã

jekupytyra@gmail.com

 

Paraguayischer Bauernbund – MPC

info@okaraygua–paraguai.org

mcp@highway.com.py

www.okaraygua–paraguai.org

 

Athenäum für Guarani–Sprache und –Kultur

ateneo@telesurf.com.py

www.ateneoguarani.edu.py

 

Koordinationsstelle für landwirtschaftliche Erzeugnisse San Pedro Norte– CPA SPN

 

Sozialistische Partei “Convergencia Popular”

pcps@highway.com.py

 

Nationale Koordinationsstelle bäuerlicher und indianischer Frauenverbände – CONAMURI

conamuri@rieder.net.py

 

Stiftung “Land ohne Übel” – Yvy Marâe’ÿ

yvymaraey.fundacion@gmail.com

 

Nationaler Verband unabhängiger Ureinwohner – ONAI

 

Organisation für Mehrsprachigkeit

guarani@om–plural.org

 

Kuruvíka Gruppe

curuvica@gmail.com

 

Karaku · Europäisches Observatorium der Guaraní Sprache

karaku.tae@gmail.com

 

Paraguay–Asunción, 19 November 2006

 


___________________________________________________

 

PT     A condenação pública por parte da União Européia do "apartheid lingüístico" paraguaio.

 

Ao Sr. Ján Figel’

Comissário de Educação, Formacão, Cultura e Multilingüismo, Comissão Européia

CAB–FIGEL@ec.europa.eu

 

A todos os membros do Parlamento Europeu

 

A Sr. Moritz Leuenberger

Para a Presidência da Confederação Helvética

webmaster@admin.ch, moritz.leuenberger@admin.ch

 

Pedimos que a União Européia contribua ativamente, sobretudo, mediante cooperação técnica e econômica, e também com inspeções internacionais, com propósito de pôr fim ao sistema implícito de "apartheid lingüístico" (1811–2006) não   Paraguai contra o guarani.

 

Como cidadãos do Brasil, pedimos de forma pública à União Européia, aos Estados membros, aos Estados candidatos e à todas as comunidades lingüísticas e cidadãos da União Européia e Suíça (por sua grande tradição de país constitucionalmente e efetivamente multilingüe), que contribuam para pôr fim ao imoral regime implícito de "apartheid lingüístico" vigente no Paraguai desde 1811 até hoje e que segregou milhões de paraguaios da língua guarani durante dois séculos, impedindo-lhes o acesso à educação, à formação e à informação na língua guarani e com isto impedindo sua real e ativa participação social, cultural, econômica e política.

 

Qual é, de forma breve, a situação do guarani?

 

É a primeira língua autóctone e majoritária do Paraguai.

 

Dae acordo com o Censo Nacional de População e Moradias do Paraguai, no ano em 2002,  59% de todos os lares paraguaios falam a língua guarani.

 

Calcula-se que entre 6 e 12 milhões de pessoas falam guarani no Paraguai, Bolívia, Argentina e Brasil.

 

Em 1992 declarou-se, pela primeira vez em toda a história do Paraguai independente (1811), a cooficialidade, em todo o país, do guarani, embora esta declaração não tenha tido nenhum efeito real até hoje (2006). As carências mais terríveis e visíveis da não aplicação da cooficialidade são: a Administração estatal — e todos seus segmentos— não escrevem em guarani, as leis não se publicam e nunca foram  publicadas em guarani, os produtos comerciais não são comercializados com instruções em guarani, não há regulamentações sobre cotas de uso do guarani por parte dos meios de comunicação públicos e privados, a imagem e a simbologia nacional de Paraguai não se incorporam no guarani, o guarani não é língua oficial e nem de trabalho das distintas instituições e organismos do Mercosul nem de outros organismos dos quais tomam parte o Paraguai, etc.

 

Não há educação em guarani. Em 1994 introduziu-se, de forma experimental, o ensino do guarani em 118 escolas em quase 6.000 escolas que havia no Paraguai nesse ano. Em 1997 havia 400 escolas com a modalidade de ensino em guarani. Em 2006 apenas 10 escolas continuam com o ensino em guarani, depois que o Governo paraguaio deixou de apoiar ativa e claramente esta modalidade. Esta política estatal, que prejudica a maioria da população, não provocou nenhuma denuncia internacional, apesar de que, nunca em duzentos anos, tenha-se educado os paraguaios em guarani, a língua majoritária do país.

 

Por que nos dirigimos à União Européia e á Suíça?

 

– Porque a União Européia (e Suíça) é, e quer ser, uma referência universal na gestão do multilingüismo.

 

– Porque a União Européia tem Estados que usam duas ou mais línguas: Finlândia, Bélgica, Malta, Irlanda, Luxemburgo, Espanha de forma parcial, Itália de forma parcial, o Reino Unido de forma parcial, etc.

 

– Porque a proteção dos direitos lingüísticos, tal como se entendem e se praticam na União Européia e Suíça, não chegaram ao Paraguai nem a muitos países da América. Unicamente chegou ao Quebec (e Canadá em seu conjunto), e basicamente apenas para proteger muito ativamente uma língua européia: o Francês. Em nenhum país da União Européia consentir-se-ia que se governasse usando uma   língua "colonial" e de minoria e que em âmbitos tão básicos, como a Administração pública e a justiça, a língua autóctone, da maioria da população, pudesse ser usada com normalidade e plenitude.

 

– Porque na América, quando se fala de multilingüismo, normalmente fala-se apenas das línguas européias (inglês, francês, castelhano, português, neerlandês). As línguas americanas foram diminuídas, assassinadas ou marginalizadas até nas relações entre si. É eloqüente que nenhuma língua americana, em 2006, seja uma língua normal de Estado na América. Nenhum outro continente do mundo encontra-se em tal situação. A justiça no mundo, se não quiser criar mais ressentimento entre as distintas comunidades humanas, também passa por estatizar, nas Américas, as línguas americanas que ainda hoje contam com milhões de falantes ou são muito viáveis em seu contexto e na proteção e promoção das demais línguas.

 

– Porque talvez hoje as línguas oficiais da União Européia e Suíça (mas também as que não são oficiais) não se sintam ameaçadas por outras línguas nem se sintam em perigo de extinção. Mas se nas Américas impõem-se quatro (ou cinco) línguas, todas européias: inglês, castelhano, português e Francês (e neerlandês), e o processo de genocídio lingüístico e cultural da América (com práticas tão abomináveis e desumanas e injustas como o "apartheid  lingüístico" paraguaio) não se detêm, quando "nós" emigramos, a um ritmo muito maior que o presente, para a União Européia e Suíça –com a memória viva da nula ajuda recebida quando nossas línguas eram assassinadas –, constituiremos enormes bolsas de falantes de inglês ou castelhano (ou português) em muitos países. E os africanos que verão morrer suas línguas sob o francês, o inglês, o português ou o árabe, aumentarão as bolsas de falantes destas línguas. Oitocentos mil falantes de castelhano ou de português, de qualquer origem, na Dinamarca (5,5 milhões de habitantes) ou na Finlândia (5,3 milhões) ou na Suécia (9 milhões) ou na Irlanda (4 milhões) serão uma "minoria alófona" a proteger e contribuirão para mudar a história e o perfil lingüístico destes países. Não será culpa nossa. Assassinam-se, perante a indiferença de todos, nossas línguas. Suprime-se, ante a  indiferença de todos, o guarani e desprezam-se os direitos humanos e lingüísticos mais básicos de seus falantes, a maioria de paraguaios. Se nada mudar, contribuiremos, apesar de tudo, para assassinar outras línguas. Sentiremos muito. Mas seremos inocentes.

 

O que pedimos?

 

A condenação pública por parte da União Européia do "apartheid lingüístico" paraguaio.

 

A cooperação efetiva política, econômica e técnica da União Européia para acabar com o "apartheid lingüístico" paraguaio contra o guarani

 

Isto pedimos agora. E não queremos apenas palavras.

 

Europa,  apenas escutas tuas vozes (tuas línguas)?

 

Assinado,

 

Movimiento de Educadores Jekupytyrâ

jekupytyra@gmail.com

 

Movimiento Campesino Paraguayo

info@okaraygua–paraguai.org

mcp@highway.com.py

www.okaraygua–paraguai.org

 

Coordinadora de Productores Agrícolas de San Pedro Norte

 

Partido Convergencia Popular Socialista

pcps@highway.com.py

 

Fundación Yvy Marâe’ÿ

yvymaraey.fundacion@gmail.com

 

Ateneo de Lengua y Cultura Guaraní

ateneo@telesurf.com.py

www.ateneoguarani.edu.py

 

Organización Nacional de Aborígenes Independientes

 

Coordinadora Nacional de Organizaciones de Mujeres Trabajadoras Rurales e Indígenas – CONAMURI

conamuri@rieder.net.py

 

Ñe’êeta rekávo Aty – Organización por el Multilingüismo

guarani@om–plural.org

 

Grupo Kuruvíka

curuvica@gmail.com

 

Karaku · Observatorio Guaraní Europeo

karaku.tae@gmail.com

 

Paraguay–Asunción, 19 de Novembro de 2006

 


___________________________________________________

 

WE DEMAND THE END OF “LINGUISTIC APARTHEID” IN PARAGUAY! ENOUGH OF TWO HUNDRED YEARS OF DISCRIMINATION!

 

FIRST REMINDER

MONTH 1

 

One month ago, the Paraguayan civil society requested the political class of Paraguay (see below) to assume responsibilities and end the shameful and ignoble system of “LINGUISTIC APARTHEID” that has predominated in Paraguay, in its state administration, media, judicial system, education, culture, etc. in its 195 years of national independence (1811–2006). This domination has excluded all those who speak Guaraní as their first language from their culture, education and from fully participating in Paraguay’s social and political life, and this is particularly so for those who only speak Guaraní. (According to the National Population and Household Census 2002 of Paraguay, Guaraní is the language spoken by 59% of all Paraguayan households!)

 

One month after our petition, the political class of Paraguay has not yet explained how they plan to dismantle the “linguistic apartheid” system that has existed in Paraguay for the last two centuries. The international community also has failed to make public the measures they will take or sanctions that will be imposed on the state for two hundred years of severe violations of the most basic human rights, the linguistic rights of the Guaraní–speaking population.

 

We demand answers!

 

And we will continue to demand them!

 

The truth and our longing for justice are on our side!

 

Mbo’ehára Ñemongu’e Jekupytyrâ – Movimiento de Educadores Jekupytyrâ

Okaraygua Ñemongu’e Paraguáipe – Movimiento Campesino Paraguayo

Coordinadora de Productores Agrícolas de San Pedro Norte

Partido Convergencia Popular Socialista

Fundación Yvy Marâe’ÿ

Ateneo de Lengua y Cultura Guaraní

Organización Nacional de Aborígenes Independientes

Ñe’êeta rekávo Aty – Organización por el Multilingüismo

 

Asunción, 31 August 2006

 

Open letter (8). “Guaraní, an official language of Mercosur” Campaign. To the political class of the Paraguayan nation. First reminder. Month one.

 

ADDRESSEES

Excelentísimo Señor Nicanor Duarte Frutos

Presidente de la República del Paraguay

secretariadecomunicaciones@presidencia.gov.py

webmaster@presidencia.gov.py

 

Excelentísimo Señor Ing. Luis Alberto Castiglioni

Vicepresidente de la República del Paraguay

 

*Honorable Cámara de Diputados del Paraguay*

 

Diputado Nacional Víctor Alcides Bogado González

Presidente

victorbogado@diputados.gov.py

 

Diputado Nacional Carlos Nelson Chávez Arguello

Vicepresidente 1º

cnchavez@diputados.gov.py

 

Diputado Nacional Lino M. Agüero Cantero

Vicepresidente 2º

lmaguero@diputados.gov.py

 

Dip. E. Zacarías Vera Cárdenas

Secretario parlamentario

ezvera@diputados.gov.py

 

Dip. Atilio Penayo Ortega

Secretario parlamentario

apenayo@diputados.gov.py

 

Dip. Mario Alberto Coronel Paredes

Secretario parlamentario

macoronel@diputados.gov.py

 

*Honorable Cámara de Senadores del Paraguay*

 

Senador Enrique González Quintana

Presidente

gquintana@senado.gov.py

 

Senador Armando Vicente Espínola Wiezell

Vicepresidente 1º

aespinola@senado.gov.py

 

Senadora Ana María Juanita Mendoza de Acha

Vicepresidente 2º

amendoza@senado.gov.py

 

Senador Jorge Antonio Oviedo Matto

Secretario parlamentario

joviedo@senado.gov.py

 

Senador Candido Carmelo Vera Bejarano

Secretario parlamentario

vbejarano@senado.gov.py

 

Senador Arsenio Ocampos Velázquez

Secretario parlamentario

aocampos@senado.gov.py

 

*Partidos políticos de Paraguái*

 

ANR (Asociación Nacional Republicana – Partido Colorado)

PDC (Partido Demócrata Cristiano)

PEN (Partido Encuentro Nacional)

PLRA (Partido Liberal Radical Auténtico)

PPQ (Partido Patria Querida)

PPS (Partido País Solidario)

PRF (Partido Revolucionario Febrerista)

 

*Human Rights Watch*

 

Estados Unidos

New York

hrwnyc@hrw.org

 

Estados Unidos

Washington, D.C.

hrwdc@hrw.org

 

Reino Unido

London

hrwatchuk@gn.apc.org

 

Bélgica

Bruselas

hrwatcheu@gn.apc.org

 

________________________________________________

 

To the political class of the Paraguayan nation. “Guaraní, an official language of Mercosur” Campaign.

 

We demand the political class of Paraguay responsibilities for having discriminated Guarani in Paraguay during the past two hundred years.

 

I hope that what guides the destiny of the Nation / will some day also contemplate the hardships suffered under miserable orphanhood.

 

Mauricio Cardoso Ocampo (1938), Chokokue purahéi (Farmer’s song)

 

Belgium became an independent country in 1830. The country functions in Dutch, French and German.

 

Norway became an independent country in 1905 and functions in Norwegian, with two official variants, Bokmal and Nynorsk.

 

Finland became an independent country in 1917 and operates in Finnish and Swedish.

 

Iceland became fully independent in 1944 and uses Icelandic.

 

Malta became independent in 1964 and operates in Maltese and English.

 

Greenland became an autonomous province of Denmark in 1979 and functions in Kalaallisut (Greenlandic) and Danish.

 

Estonia became an independent country in 1991 and functions in Estonian.

 

Slovakia became an independent country in 1993 and operates in Slovak.

 

The same goes for an infinite number of countries around the world.

 

Paraguay won its independence in 1811. In 195 years of independence, Paraguay has never operated in the identifying, historic, sentimental, autochthonous, indigenous language spoken by the majority of the population, the Guaraní language. Who will answer for this bicentenary injustice, for the denial of dignity and the rights of millions of Paraguayans, of generations of Paraguayans? An enormous and crucial part of the blame, of the responsibility for this injustice lies with the political class of Paraguay.

 

For two hundred years the political class of Paraguay has refused to build an authentic “national home” for the Guaraní language. There are hundreds of “national homes” for other languages, but none for Guaraní. The elite class of this country has refused to create a Paraguayan State that operates in Guaraní and uses it in its administration, educational system, armed forces, media, economics, culture and art, social and associative life... a country in which everyone would also speak Spanish and other languages.

 

During these two hundred years in which Paraguay has been an independent country, languages with the same, or even less number of speakers, with a similar or even younger written tradition, have been linguistically and socially standardised and are now the languages of small and large countries around the world. This is the case for languages such as Finnish, Norwegian, Maltese, Estonian, Catalan, Latvian, etc. Why was it denied, why does it continue to be denied to Guaraní?

 

The new Paraguayan State born in 1811 could have adopted the “national” tradition of the Jesuit missions to “govern the country” in Guaraní –an experience that was abruptly and brutally shattered in 1767, only 44 years before reaching independence– and create a state in Guaraní and Spanish. It was not done. Never in two hundred years has the political class of Paraguay explained the reasons for these two centuries of disgrace, denial and contempt.

 

Now we have the moral obligation, at least to ourselves, and especially to all the Paraguayans who preceded us and lived in a state built without their language, our language, with regard to history and to all Paraguayans, to honestly and even painfully ask ourselves, Why did the Paraguayan State not take into account the Guaraní language when it was built? Why has it not been done in two hundred years? What abominable prejudices or ignoble, selfish and antipatriotic interests have allowed such an unjust and arbitrary act, such a barbarity?

 

The exclusion of the Guaraní language has been a cruel, inhumane, unjust, immoral, unethical, unchristian way –in a country in which the majority of citizens are Christian– of keeping most of the population in subdued poverty, with high rates of illiteracy and suffering under the harshest and most atrocious exploitation.. It has been a way of excluding the majority of the population from political and citizen participation, of preventing them from debating about the model of their state. How has it been possible, in two hundred years, to legislate and issue laws, to exchange public and private contracts in a language that, until recently, the majority of the population did not understand? Is this not an outright injustice? Is it not a legal insecurity to leave most of the population completely defenceless? How could this happen? How can we let this happen? How could we have done so much damage to our own selves?

 

Paraguay has legislated against the majority of its citizens. It has governed against the majority of Paraguayans. Education was never offered to all of the population. Never. Providing education to all of the country’s citizens meant and still means the creation of one Nation for all, a more just Nation for all. If the goal were to educate and reach all of the population, then all schooling and teaching would have been done in our language, in Guaraní, in addition to teaching other languages. As happens in all other normal states of the world. The state of Paraguay would have based its foundations on Guaraní. Why was this not done? Why does the Paraguayan media not ask itself day after day why this was not done and why it is not done now?

 

In two hundred years, millions of Paraguayans have been stripped of their self–esteem. For the sole fact of speaking Guaraní and of being who they are. Only because they speak a language that existed before any European language had arrived. Their lives have been destroyed merely for speaking a language they did not choose, since no one chooses the language they speak. They have been denied the right to be first–class citizens in their own country because they speak a language that is as or even more American, as or even more ancient than our most cherished red earth. The atrocities and errors that have been committed are deplorable and worthy of tears. We should weep with guilt. Weep for days.

 

The Guaraní language has been sullied and betrayed. Guaraní saved our Nation in the two wars that almost bled us to death, the wars of 1865–1870 and 1932–1935. By fighting in Guaraní, thousands of Paraguayans were willing to die to defend their Nation and the freedom of all. A Nation that was built against them, against their language, our language. Any normal country with even the slightest feeling of national dignity, self–esteem and respect towards its citizens would immediately have made official the language that helped save the Nation. But this did not happen in Paraguay. It did not happen! It simply did not happen! Even worse, the language and its people were persecuted, denigrated, humiliated. Guaraní was in no way elevated to the level of a state language; the language of a state for which thousands died fighting. This is tantamount to indignity. The language was relegated to the level of folklore and was denied dignity and power!

 

We want to build the future!

 

We will not forget –nor do we want to forget– our linguistic history. But we do want to build our future. A future for Paraguay, a future for Guaraní. A future filled with justice. But in order to build this future we need a national catharsis, we need our own linguistic truth and justice commission, to fight our own battle, to understand and close the wound we bear for all that has been done against the Guaraní language and all other Paraguayan languages in the past two hundred years.

 

We want the political class of Paraguay to explain itself. Why have these deeds been perpetrated? Why has what has happened to us as a Nation been tolerated? We want explanations so as not to repeat the errors of the past.

 

Once we have been given these explanations, we will look towards the future with the need to know, What are we going to do to make Guaraní a fully official language of the Paraguayan State, of Mercosur and of our part of America?

 

We ask the political parties for specific compromises:

 

1.   Not to nominate candidates to election or as trusted members of government those who cannot prove having a perfect oral and written command of both Guaraní and Spanish.

 

2.   To use Guaraní orally and written in all publications, posters, stickers, placards, webs, speeches, slogans, etc.

 

3.   To immediately publish their linguistic policy program for Paraguay and state their goals for Guaraní –indigenous, national and official language– for Spanish –official language– for the rest of the Paraguayan languages and for the languages of immigrants. As well as the terms in which these goals will be achieved.

 

4.   To make public the names of those responsible for the linguistic policies of each party who, in turn, should explain what they will do to carry through their program and the standards by which they will evaluate the activities carried out by the Paraguayan government in terms of linguistic policies.

 

Within this context, we demand that the political parties answer the following questions:

 

1.   When will Guaraní be an officially regulated language?

 

2.   When will Paraguay pass a linguistic policy law?

 

3.   What will be done for office automation and the use of the most universal programs in Guaraní?

 

4.   When will all laws and other state, departamental and local legal provisions be published in Guaraní and in Spanish?

 

5.   When will it be mandatory –with all means provided– for all Paraguayan schoolchildren to have a spoken and written command of Guaraní, Spanish and a third language by the time they finish their studies?

 

6.   When will the Paraguayan administration work, at all levels, in Guaraní and Spanish? When will civil servants –old and new– speak and write in both languages? When will a national training plan be introduced to prepare present civil servants to be able to carry out their duties in both Guaraní and Spanish?

 

7.   When will all national symbology (name of the state, national emblem, flag, names of the institutions, national hymn, stamps, passports, identity cards, names of the cities, streets and geographical features) also be in Guaraní or be named in Guaraní?

 

8.   When will all public and private media in Paraguay guarantee at least 50% of its offer in Guaraní?

 

9.   When will it be mandatory for all Paraguayan firms to offer all of their products (including labelling) and services at least in Guaraní and in Spanish, and guarantee that their clients will be attended in the language of their choice, in Guaraní or in Spanish?

 

10.   When will the obligation of accrediting foreigners with sufficient oral and written knowledge of Guaraní and Spanish before they can obtain the Paraguayan nationality be regulated?

 

11.   What steps will be taken to make Guaraní fully official in Mercosur and in the Mercosur Parliament?

 

12.   What steps will be taken to turn Guaraní into the fifth interamerican language alongside Spanish, English, Portuguese and French?

 

13.   What will be done to facilitate knowledge, relations and cooperation amongst all of the Guaraní–speaking American community?

 

14.   What will be done for Paraguayans abroad with regard to offering Guaraní language classes and classes “in Guaraní”?

 

Tired of the frauds and deceits suffered by all Paraguayans and the Guaraní language in the past two hundred years, we ask our friends around the world to help us make this denunciation / petition known in order to alert the international community, after almost two centuries, of the indignity and injustices that the political class of our country has committed and continues to commit against our language and the people who speak Guaraní, against the citizens of Paraguay.

 

Paraguay–Asunción, 31 / July / 2006

 




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